identify the preferred learning styles according to the VARK model and their impact on the achievement of fifth grade secondary students in science
The aim of the research is to identify the preferred learning styles according to the VARK model and their impact on the achievement of fifth grade secondary students in science, by verifying authentication of the following Zero hypothesis:
- There are no statistically significant differences at the level of significance (0.5) between the average scores of the students of the experimental group and those studied according to the (VARK) model for learning styles, and the average scores of the students of the control group who study according to the traditional method in the post-achievement test of the science subject. In order to verify the goal and testing the validity of this hypothesis adopted two approaches:
The first approach : the descriptive approach: The two researchers conducted an exploratory experiment that included a group of supervisors and teachers of science for the fifth grade of primary school, numbered (22), to determine the patterns preferred by the fifth grade primary students in their study of the science subject according to the patterns specified in the VARK model and confirmed the four patterns in order (pattern Visual learning, auditory learning style, reading / writing learning pattern, and motor / practical learning pattern). They also directed a questionnaire for science teachers who teach fifth elementary students to make sure that there is a problem that continues to our time.
The second approach: the experimental approach: to complement the previous procedures, an experiment has been conducted to identify the effect of the preferred patterns in the achievement of fifth-grade primary students in the science subject. It lasted a whole semester by adopting the experimental design with two experimental and control groups, one of them controlling the other partial control and those with a post-test to test achievement of the science subject.
The current research community has been determined by the fifth-grade primary school students in the Adhamiya primary school and Abu Hanifa al-Nu`man primary school, and they have been intentionally chosen, for the school year (2019-2020). The number of students in the two schools reached 70 students, where the first school has been chosen randomly as an experimental group that was studied according to preferred learning styles pursuant to the VARK model and the other, a control group studied according to the traditional method, and after excluding students who had failed, the number of students in the two groups reached about (59) students, by (29) students representing the experimental group and (30) students representing the control group, as the death of students of the two groups in the variables of (intelligence) , Previous achievement, chronological age calculated in months, and a pre-test for previous information ).
For controlling other variables for the internal and external safety of the research, the researcher has studied the research sample students in the two groups. The scientific subject has been identified in the first three units (classification and diversity, the human body and health, the subject) from the science book for the fifth grade of primary school, fourth edition, Ministry of Education for the year 2019 AD. The behavioral objectives of the components represented in the cognitive field (remembering, comprehension, application) have been identified, which amounted to about (231) behavioral objectives. The researchers have prepared 33 study plans to teach the students of the experimental group according to the VARK model, and likewise on the usual way of teaching Control group students.
To test the validity of the Zero hypothesis, the researchers have prepared the achievement test consisting of (48) items of the multiple test type. It verified its apparent validity and construction after being presented to a group of arbitrators and obtaining an average agreement that ranged from (87% -100%) according to Cooper's formula for agreement. On two exploratory samples other than the basic research sample, the first numbered about (20) female students; the purpose of which was to know the clarity of the test items and determine the time for answering them, whereas the second numbered about (100) students. The purpose has been to analyze the test items statistically, and as the psychometric properties of the test have been extracted (the coefficient of difficulty and ease, the strength of discrimination, and the effectiveness of the wrong alternatives), the reliability of the test has been extracted using the Keoder Richardson equation - 20) and its coefficient has been about (0.87). The experiment has been conducted in the first semester of the academic year (2019-2020). After the end of the experiment, the post-achievement test has been applied, the data have been statistically treated using the t-test for two independent samples of not equal size, and the research reached the following results:
* The preferred learning patterns according to the VARK model affected the experimental group students' achievement of the science subject in a large degree and the size of its effect (0.16) compared to the scale.