Scientific thinking for lower secondary students


  • م. عباس عبد جاسم كلية التربية الاساسية - الجامعة المستنصرية


scientific thinking, students, scale


     Thinking is the higher process in the higher mental processes practiced by the higher mental processes that exercise mental processes in the mental processes that engage in a commercial activity in the mental processes, which leads to the economics of the processes performed by the process and the mental in the processes that lead to the beginning of the process and the mental that leads to the onset The process and talking about it on the basis of an awareness of the appropriate solution, and emotionally from a sentence, and the appearance of a number of trademarks, and their ownership in the residential field, franchise, purchase, and home.

The current research aimed to identify:

1- Measurement of scientific thinking for lower secondary students

2- Ideintify the siignificance of the statiistical diifferences among studeints accordiing to the geender variiable maele, femiale.

 Search limits:

The currient reisearch is liimited to students in the third district of Al-Karkh for the academic year (2018-2019) in Baghdad Governorate

The currient riesearch has been dietermined by miiddle schooll studeints, the feirst Rusiafa in Baghdad Goviernorate for the academic year 2018-2019. In ordier to achiieve the aims the research, the researcher adopted a measurre of scientific thinking consistiing of (26) items, and the two extremes groups method was used and the results showed that there are (6) items that are not distinguished (2, 13, 18, 23, 24, 25), and thes the number reached Paragraphs of the scale of scientific thinking, in its final form (20) paragraphs. The non-distinctive paragraphs were excluded and after that the scale was applied to the research sample of (100) students, and the apparent validity of the scale was achieved. As for stability, it was extracted by the half-way method using the Pearson correlation coefficient.

The research results:

1-The scientiific thinkiing of the reseiarch samplle is hiigher thaan the hyppothetical averrage.

 2- Ther is no siignificant diifferences in the sciientific thiinking of the research saample accordiing to the gnder variiable.

Baseed on thes ressults, the reseaarcher came up with a nuomber of reecommendations and proposals.



How to Cite

جاسم م. ع. ع. (2021). Scientific thinking for lower secondary students. مجلة أبحاث الذكاء, 14(30), 292–305. Retrieved from